Appendix

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Plugin Documentation

GFX

Audio

Input

RSP

Legacy Plugins

N64 Accessories

Bio Sensor

A heartrate monitor used only for Tetris 64's Bio Tetris mode. The game speed will vary depending on the player's heartrate. Not currently emulated.

Controller Pak

An alternative to the save types, also known as Memory Pak, inserted into the controller. This type of saved data is handled by the controller plugin rather than the emulator itself.

Expansion Pak

The Expansion Pak is an official Nintendo accessory for the Nintendo 64 that increases the amount of RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory) available from 4 megabytes (4MB) to 8MB. It was released in late 1998, and is supported by over 60 games. It often allows games to run in a high resolution mode, but the effects of this will not be evident unless software rendering is being used. The only games that require the Expansion Pak to run are Donkey Kong 64 and The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask. It can be enabled or disabled via the memory size option in ROM Settings.

Jumper Pak

Comes bundled with the console in the memory expansion slot. Used as a placeholder for the Expansion Pak.

Rumble Pak

A battery powered device inserted into the controller, which rumbles when certain action happens in-game. Handled by the controller plugin, works with gamepads with rumble support.

Transfer Pak

Inserted into the controller. Used for data transfer between an N64 game and a Game Boy game inserted into the pak. Supported by only a few games.

VRU

Voice recognition unit. Used only by Densha de Go! 64 (not required) and Hey You, Pikachu! (required). Not currently emulated.

Glossary of Terms

AMD

AMD (formerly ATI) is one of the three common manufacturers of GPUs (graphic processing units). They are known for their Radeon series, which includes full-size graphics cards, laptop GPUs, and integrated GPUs in AMD CPUs.

Bad ROM

A Bad ROM (seen in the Project64 ROM browser as "Bad ROM?") is usually a ROM image of a game that does not represent the same exact data as the original cartridge. It could be corrupt, incorrectly dumped, modified, etc. which can become evident if the game crashes, does not load at all, or displays other kinds of unique issues. However, when seen in the ROM browser, it could also be referring to a ROM that is not in Project64's RDB (ROM database). If the latter is the case, please consider reporting your findings to the development team, or request to add the entry to the official source code. For more information on bad dumps, see Dump.

Boot

Describes the process of loading and starting a Nintendo 64 game.

Cartridge ID

See ROM Browser.

Cheats

See Cheats.

CIC Chip

See ROM Browser.

CRC

See ROM Browser.

Core

In relation to Project64, the term core usually refers to the CPU Core, one of the elements that makes up the emulator, located in Project64.exe.

CPU

Central Processing Unit. Can refer to the CPU in the users' PC, or the Nintendo 64's VR4300 CPU.

Debugger

See Project64 Debugger.

Directory

Folder.

DirectX

One of the application programming interfaces (API) used for rendering graphics in Project64. It is currently only for Windows and is developed by Microsoft. Part of DirectX is Direct3D, DirectSound, XAudio, DirectInput, and XInput, terms you may often see.

Popular Direct3D plugins:

Popular DirectSound plugins:

Popular XAudio plugins:

Popular DirectInput plugins:

Popular XInput plugins:

Dump

See Dump.

EEPROM

One of the save types used to store game data. It is the smallest and most common save type, available in 4Kb (512 byte) and 16Kb (2048 byte) variants.

FlashRAM

One of the save types used to store game data. It is the largest save type and used only in a handful of games, often 128 kilobytes in size.

Frame rate

Frame rate refers to the number of video frames being sent to the display per second.

Good Name

The definitive name for a ROM, e.g. Star Fox 64 (U) (V1.1) [!] - Game Name (Region) (Version, if any) [[[Dump]] type]. The file name does not affect the Good Name nor Internal Name.

GoodN64

An application used for identifying, naming, and organising Nintendo 64 ROMs.

GPU

A GPU is a graphics processing unit. In terms of PCs, GPUs are usually located either on a graphics card, or on-board (on the motherboard or in the CPU). Different users' GPUs may exhibit different behaviour to each other when using Project64, which also depends on the plugins used. When using a hardware plugin, the GPU is used to render Project64's gameplay. In terms of the Nintendo 64 hardware, graphics processing is handled by two processors, the RDP and the RSP.

Hardware plugin

See Hardware plugin.

HLE

High-level emulation. See HLE.

Intel

Intel is one of the three common manufacturers of GPUs (graphic processing units). They are known for their HD graphics series, integrated into the CPU both on desktop and laptop PCs.

Internal Name

The Internal Name of a Nintendo 64 ROM is the name placed at the start of the file (a section known as the ROM header) by the developers of the game. It is limited to 20 characters (e.g. "Beetle Adventure Rac"). This helps to identify the game without booting it.

Interpreter

A style of emulation which executes functions for each hardware operation to emulate them in software. This is slower but more accurate.

LLE

Low-level emulation. See LLE.

MD5

See ROM Browser.

MLE

Middle-level emulation. A legacy term referring to the use of an HLE video plugin, and an LLE audio plugin, specifically. Any combination of HLE/HLE, HLE/LLE, LLE/HLE, and LLE/LLE can be used now.

NTSC

NTSC (National Television System Committe) is the television standard used mainly in North America (USA, Canada), Japan, and some other regions. It displays at a frequency of 60Hz (up to 60 frames per second), and at a typical resolution of 480 visible lines. An NTSC ROM is most likely referring to the (J) or (U) version. NTSC versions of a game usually play at a capped frame rate of 30 frames per second. Certain games may reach 60 frames per second.

Nvidia

Nvidia is one of the three common manufacturers of GPUs (graphic processing units). They are known for their GeForce series, which includes full-size graphics cards, laptop GPUs, and integrated GPUs on motherboards. The last of these is becoming uncommon, since Intel and AMD (the two major computer CPU manufacturers) integrate their own GPUs into their CPUs.

OpenGL

One of the application programming interfaces (API) used for rendering graphics in Project64.

Popular OpenGL plugins:

PAL

PAL (Phase Alternation Line) is the television standard used mainly in Europe, Australia, and some other regions. It displays at a frequency of 50Hz (up to 50 frames per second), and at a typical resolution of 576 visible lines. A PAL ROM can refer to a number of different ROM regions. PAL versions of a game usually play at a capped frame rate of 25 frames per second. Certain games may reach 50 frames per second.

Plugin

A plugin, for either graphics, audio, input, or RSP, is a file that allows for the processing of the aforementioned aspects of the Nintendo 64. They are placed in the "Plugin" folder in the Project64 folder. There are many different plugins that may work better in certain situations than others.

Recompiler

A style of emulation which disassembles each hardware operation and re-assembles them to blocks of native machine code in hardware. This is faster but less accurate.

Region

See Region.

RAM

RAM stands for Random Access Memory. The Nintendo 64 contains 4 megabytes of RAM, however this can be increased to 8 megabytes with the use of the Expansion Pak. RAM can also be used to refer to the amount of RAM in your computer (see System Requirements).

RDB

Project64's ROM Database.

RCP

Reality Coprocessor. The secondary processor in the Nintendo 64 containing the RDP and RSP.

RDP

Reality Display Processor. This is primarily used as a pixel rasterizer (drawing the images so that they are ready for display).

RSP

Reality Signal Processor. This performs various graphical tasks and 3D calculations, but is also more than likely used to process sound as well.

Saved State

A function in emulators that saves the contents of the Nintendo 64's memory to a file, so you can resume where you left off (see Config Guide).

Save type

Many Nintendo 64 games save data to what is basically a memory chip on the cartridge. There are different kinds (EEPROM, FlashRAM, and SRAM) which are known in Projec64 as save types. Game data can also be saved on the Controller Pak.

Software plugin

See Software plugin.

Speed display

See Config Guide.

SRAM

One of the save types used to store game data. Available in 256Kb (32 kilobyte) and 768Kb (96 kilobyte) variants. The latter is only used by Dezaemon 3D.

Wrapper

Since Glide64 was originally developed for the Glide API (an alternative to DirectX/OpenGL for 3dfx graphics cards thousands of years ago), it uses a wrapper (glide3x.dll) in order to function on OpenGL. This is just one example of a wrapper's use.